Soleden 2018

THE 2018 SOELDEN GS: A LITMUS TEST OF DYNAMIC STABILITY

Challenging  course conditions, especially in GS, are the litmus test of dynamic stability. The 2018 World Cup GS at Soelden had challenging conditions in spades.

The ability to rapidly achieve dynamic stability across the inside edge of the outside ski is key to moving the Center of Force forward to the point where the biokinetic chain of the outside leg attains sufficient tension to enable the stretch reflex. The stretch reflex (SR) can then modulate pertubations due to asperities in snow surface and terrain with ankle strategies. The principle muscle in ankle balance synergies is the soleus. Dynamic stability enables a racer to float between turns, accelerate under gravity then land on line and load the outside ski. A racer with good dynamic stability is on and off the edges in milliseconds and back into the float phase. Like a skilled gymnast elite skiers and racers can choose their line and stick their landing. Tessa Worely excelled at this in the 2018 Soelden GS.

Tell Tale Signs of Dynamic Stability

Key indicators of dynamic stability are a quiet upper body and the speed at which a racer achieves their line and crosses over into the new turn with their upper body. It’s like watching a flat rock thrown low skipping off water; fly-skip-fly-skip.

In my post, WHY YOUNG TALENTED SKI RACERS FAIL AND EVENTUALLY QUIT RACING (1.), I discuss the 3 levels of balance:

  1. The first reaction is the myotatic stretch reflex, which appears in response to changes in the position of the ankle joints, and is recorded in the triceps surae muscles. This is the earliest mechanism, which increases the activity of the muscles surrounding a joint that is subject to destabilization. Spinal  reflex triggered by the myotatic stretch reflex response causes the muscle to contract resulting in the stiffening of the surrounding joints as a response to the stimulus that has disturbed the balance. For example, changes in the angle of the joints of the lower limbs are followed by a reflexive (fascial) tensioning of adjacent muscles. The subsequent release of the reaction prevents excessive mobility of the joints and stabilises the posture once again.
  2. The next reflex in the process of balancing is the balance-correcting response, which is evoked in response to a strongly destabilising stimulus. This reactive response has a multi-muscle range, and occurs almost simultaneously in the muscles of the lower limbs, torso and neck, while the mechanisms that initiate the reaction are centrally coordinated.
  3. The last of the three types of muscular reaction is the balance-stabilising response. In a situation of a sudden loss of balance, a myotatic stretch reflex first occurs and is then is followed by a balance correcting response, which prevents or attempts to prevent a fall.

I call these balance responses Green (postural reaction 1), Orange (postural reaction 2) and Red (postural reaction 3).

If a racer is no able to use the myotatic reflex (Green = Normal) balance response, the CNS shifts to Level 2 (Orange = Caution) or even Level 3 (Red = DANGER).

Level 1 balance is characterized by a stable, well-controlled upper body (aka quiet upper body) with well controlled and directed positions of the arms.

When the myotatic (stretch) reflex is compromised by restriction of the ankle flexion range required to tension the soleus the balance system will shift to level 2 or level 3 depending on the degree of interference. As the degree of interference with required range of ankle flexion increases the degree of reflexive balance will progress from small, rapid, reactive arm movements to gross reactive arm movements that eventually include gross movements of the torso.

The authors of the Polish skier balance study cited in my post state that ski boots exclude the ankle joint complex from the process of maintaining the stability of the body. However, I don’t believe this is the case with all skiers and especially all racers as evidenced by Soelden video of Tessa Worley, Federica Brignone and Michaela Shiffrin. In my next post I will discuss what I look for in analyzing that suggests dynamic stability and especially a lack of dynamic stability and the indications of compromise and the potential cause.

In the meantime, here’s something to think about.

Early in my boot modification career I came to the conclusion that some skiers, especially racers, were born with the right shape of feet and legs (2.) and this explained why they could ski in ski boots right out of the box with minimal or no modifications better than the majority of skiers even after extensive boot modifications. In a recent series of posts I discussed the results of the 2012 skate study that I modified hockey skates for; the NS (New Skates – Blue bars in the graphics below). The modifications I made were based on ski boot modifications that had resulted in dramatic improvement in performance and race results. Although I optimistically predicted improvements in performance metrics of at least 10% (110%) based on my experience with World Cup skiers, I knew that there was the possibility of a wild card competitive skater who was already close to their maximum performance in their OS (Own Skates – Red bars in the graphics below). If this were the case the skater would realize minimal improvement from the New Skates.

My previous posts only included the results for four competitive skaters. There were actually five competitive skaters in the study. Skater number 1 was the wild card. Look what happened to the results when the wild card skater was added.Look carefully at the graph of the Impulse Force below. Compare Skater number one’s Impulse Force results with the Peak Force results in the preceding graph.This raises the question: Do Tessa Worely, Federica Brignone, Mikaela Shiffrin and other top World Cup racers have the right shape of feet and legs or do they have the right modifications made to their ski boots.


  1. (https://skimoves.me/2017/02/15/why-young-talented-ski-racers-fail-and-eventually-quit-racing/)
  2. THE IDEAL SKIER’S FOOT AND LEG – https://wp.me/p3vZhu-qf