NABOSO

NABOSO: FEEL THE FORCE

To Dr. Emily Splichal

In recognition of Dr. Emily Splichal’s contribution to my knowledge and through the knowledge gleaned from the use or her pioneering NABOSO surface science technology I am dedicating this post to her as my teacher, mentor and inspiration. Thank you Dr. Splichal.


In this post I am going to discuss how NABOSO surface science technology gave me the feedback mechanism to confirm the optimal ramp angle I needed to transition to a higher level of skier performance.

Optimal Ramp Angles starts with Stance Training

My transition started with refinements to my stance that came from incorporating Dr. Splichal’s principles of foot-to-core sequencing (that connects the feet with the pelvic core) and body fascial tensioning (that unifies the body). Prior to these changes my stance is what I would now define as good but not optimal. The huge improvement resulting from the refinements served as the impetus for a series of posts on the sequencing process required to assume a fascially tensioned stance with foot to core sequencing. I called this the SR Stance. The reason I chose this name was to draw reader attention to the stance posts by making the stance seem innovative, but not intimidating.

KIS is the Stance Kiss of Death

In reviewing material on ski technique, a skier’s stance is described as anything from an athletic stance, a relaxed stance, a ready stance, a balanced stance, a centered stance or a whatever feels good stance. A focus on selling skiing as easy with the KIS principle (Keep It Simple) has resulted in stance being perceived as less than critical to good technique. This leaves most skiers with the impression that a ski stance should feel similar to a relaxed upright stance on two feet with weight equally distributed between both feet and the heels and forefoot of each foot. This is interpreted by skiers as meaning they are balanced or in balance. So it follows that in actual skiing there should be even ‘pressure’ everywhere with no sensation of pressure on any specific area of the foot.

If I ask a typical skier to stand on a ramped surface and assume their ski stance they will find the sweet spot where their weight feels evenly distributed and identify it with their ski stance regardless of the  angle of the surface

So the first challenge to transitioning to a higher level of skier peformance is accepting that a strong ski stance must be learned and consistently rehearsed by doing drills as I do every time I go skiing. It’s like pre-flight check. NABOSO provide the conscious and subconscious CNS feedback that tells me when I am cleared for take off.

The NABOSO Effect

In my post NABOSO PROPRIOCEPTIVE STIMULATION INSOLES, I stated that the principle proprioceptive neural activity associated with balance responses occurs across the plantar plane. It is strongest in the 1st MPJ (big toe joint) and big toe. The fast acting small FA II nerves in this area are activated by pressure and skin stretch both of which occur in the late phase of Mid Stance. Optimal ramp angle is critical because it maximizes both pressure and skin stretch thereby potentiating the sensory input required to initiate controlled movement.

Assuming a NABOSO is trimmed, if necessary, to fit a shoe, there will be a positive effect on plantar proprioceptive stimulation. But my experience to date has been that the plantar proprioceptive stimulation will be much more pronounced in a minimal, zero drop shoe with adequate width for fascial forefoot tensioning and correct alignment of the big toe.

The big breakthrough for me came after I started using NABOSO insoles in shoes with different heel raises (drops). It turned out that I had the highest perception of  pressure under the ball of my foot in late mid stance phase with shoes with zero ramp (drop). When I put NABOSO insoles in my ski boots to test them I could hardly perceive any pressure under the ball of my outside foot during skiing no matter how I adjusted my stance or the tensions in my boot closures. This told me that my ramp angle of almost 3 degrees was far too great. As soon as I reduced the angle to 1.2 degrees (which is what I tested best at on my dynamic ramp angle device) it is no exaggeration to state the the whole world changed. But the transition effect didn’t kick into high gear until this ski season after my brain had time to delete a lot of the bad programming from the old ramp angle.

NABOSO 1.0 on the left. NABOSO 1.5 on the right. I use 1.5 in my ski boots. I purchase the large size and trim to fit.

Tentative Conclusions

  • A system that provides continuous subconscious sensory input to the CNS with the ability to consciously sense sensory input during drills in executive mode is important.
  • Stance training should be incorporated into racer training programs at an early stage and optimal stance ramp angle identified and implemented.
  • Once optimal ramp angle has been implemented the boot should be set up to the skier’s functional specification which I will discuss in future posts.
  • Stance ramp angle should be retested on a periodic basis to confirm the requirements have not changed.
  • Adjustments should be made as soon as possible after the end of a competitive season and no further changes made during the subsequent competitive season.

In my next post I will discuss Dr. Splichal’s protocol for using NABOSO insoles and matts in training.


Disclosure

I am not involved in any form of business association or affiliation or any have business interest or investment with Dr. Splichal/NABOSO/EBFA. Nor do I receive any form of compensation from the sale of NABOSO. Prior to marketing her NABOSO insoles Dr. Splichal provided me with a small sample of NABOSO material at her cost to cut insoles from for testing.

 

 

TRANSITIONING TO A HIGHER LEVEL OF SKIER PERFORMANCE

The transition to a higher level of skier performance for my spouse and I started in the 2012-13 ski season. After a ten-year hiatus from skiing we were returning to the ski hills with renewed enthusiasm coupled with a desire to reach a higher level of performance. I purchased new narrow waisted skis for both of us. I intended to purchase new ski boots as well. But I quickly backed off from even considering this after assessing a number of new boots as too difficult to work with.

I started The Skier’s Manifesto in the spring of 2013 for a number of reasons. The primary reason was that the forum provided me with an opportunity to acquire new information and increase my knowledge so I could learn how to transition my spouse and I to a higher level of skier performance. The process of attempting to explain complex technical issues by writing articles and posts serves as the impetus for me to think deeply, thoroughly and analytically. As the process unfolded, I discovered issues I had overlooked in the past or not fully explored.

One issue I had not fully explored, let alone addressed, is a way of identifying the optimal ramp angle specific to each skier. Ramp angle is the angle of the ramp of the plantar plane under a skier’s foot with the base plane of the ski. Finding a method of identifying optimal ramp angle proved far more difficult than I had anticipated. But when I succeeded in identifying and then implementing the optimal ramp angles for my spouse and I last ski season this proved to be the gateway to a higher level of skier performance than I could ever have envisioned. After identifying and then confirming my optimal ramp angle as 1.2 degrees (bindings zero) I finally understood after almost 45 years how and why changing from the leather ski boots I learned to ski in to the new plastic boots had such a devastating impact on my skiing. It was the change in ramp angle. The ramp angle in my leather boots was much less than the ramp angle in my plastic boots.

By 1978 I had subjectively found that a ramp angle greater than 3 degrees adversely affects skier performance with some skiers affected more than others. I knew there was no one size fits all, only that more than 3 degrees seemed to cause problems. From 1978 onward I was improving skier performance by ensuring the total ramp angle of the combined boot board/binding (zeppa + delta) was about 3 degrees. For females with small feet this required grinding the boot board in Lange boots flat or even negative (heel down) to compensate for binding ramp angle which increased as the toe and heel pieces moved closer together for small boots. I wasn’t always able to get the ramp angle set at 3 degrees. But getting it in the 3 degree range consistently resulted in significant improvement in skier performance.

It was becoming increasingly apparent to me that finding the optimal individual ramp was critical.

Critical Ramp Angle

In 2018 I identified the critical ramp angle as the angle of the plantar plane in relation to the base plane of the ski that enables a skier to apply maximum vertical force to the ball of the outside foot when the COM in the pelvis is stacked vertically over the head of the first metatarsal.

The vertical force is applied passively by force transfered to the plantar aponeurosis ligament (PA) by Achilles tendon (AT) tension.  As COM moves forward towards the head of the first metatarsal in the support phase where skier resists the force of gravity, AT-PA tension applies an increasingly greater down force to the head of the first metatarsal. Ramp angle is optimal when the vertical force peaks just prior to the end of the support phase in what is called Mid Stance in the Gait Cycle of walking.  I qualified this mechanism as enabling a skier to apply maximum vertical force to the head of the first metatarsal. Studies have shown in the skiing the position of the pelvis in relation to its vertical position with foot is the most reliable indicator of the position of COM. A skier is able to control the vertical force applied to the head of the first metatarsal by controlling the position of the pelvis.

The photos below show Marcel Hirscher and Tesa Worley applying maximum force to the head of the first metatarsal of their outside foot by stacking their pelvis over it.

The Problem with Adapting

The primary determinant of the critical ramp angle is the length of skier’s Achilles tendon (AT).

The length of the AT can and does vary significantly among the general and skier populations. The type of everyday footwear worn and especially what is called drop (heel elevated above the forefoot) can affect the length of Achilles tendon.

Drop affects the timing of the process that stiffens the foot transforming it into a rigid lever for propulsion. Over time, the predominate wearing of footwear with significant drop can cause the AT to shorten as a way for the body to adjust the timing of the stiffening process. In activities such as walking and standing, a shortened Achilles tendon may not have a noticeable affect on performance. But in skiing, the timing of the AT-PA tensioning process is critical. Those who learned to ski in boots with ramp angles close to optimal for the length of their Achilles tendon typically excel at skiing regardless of athletic prowess while gifted athletes who learned to ski in boots with sub optimal ramp angle can struggle in spite of innate athletic ability. For a racer whose equipment is close to their critical ramp angle a change in equipment that significantly changes ramp angle can be fatal to a promising career.

Most skiers would assume that they can just adapt to a sub optimal ramp angle. But adaptation is precisely the reason why skiers and racers with a sub optimal ramp angle reach a threshold from which they cannot advance. When their brain makes repeated attempts to apply force to the head of the first metatarsal without success it starts to make adjustments in what are called synaptic connections to create a new movement pattern to adapt to sub optimal ramp angle. The more the equipment with a sub optimal ramp angle is used the more the associated synaptic connections are strengthened and reinforced. Once the movement pattern associated with sub optimal ramp angle is hardened,  optimal ramp angle is likely to be perceived by the brain as wrong. Telling a racer with sub optimal ramp angle to get forward or get over it (what that means) will only make matters worse because a sub optimal ramp angle makes it impossible. Correcting the ramp angle and/or the length of the AT will not help because neither will change the hard-wired movement pattern in the brain. Deleting a bad movement program can be done. But it usually takes a structured program and a protracted effort.

Mid Stance Misinformation

A factor that I believe may have contributed to the critical ramp angle issue being overlooked is misinformation about mid stance. The story used to sell footbeds and even some orthotics is that skiing is a Mid Stance activity and in Mid Stance the foot is pronated and weak necessitating a foundation under the arch to support it. While it is true that the load phase of skiing occurs in Mid Stance the statement that the foot is weak is only partially true because it doesn’t encompass the whole picture.

The Stance or Support Phase of what is called the Gait Cycle of walking consists of four phases:

  1. Loading Response
  2. Mid Stance
  3. Terminal Stance
  4. Pre-Swing

All four phases happen in a ski turn sequence. The support phase, where one foot is flat on the ground and the leg is supporting the weight of COM, is called Mid Stance. The position of COM in relation to the head of the first metatarsal in Mid Stance and how fast COM can move forward over the head of the first metatarsal (center of the ski) of the outside foot in the load phase is a major factor in dynamic control and the ability of a skier to apply maximum force to head of the first metatarsal. But Mid Stance is a range and a sequential stiffening process, not a fixed point as has been misrepresented for decades by many in the ski industry.

The graphic below shows the relationship of 1. Achilles Tendon Force with 2. Plantar Aponeurosis Force with 3. Vertical GRF and how the tensioning process and transfer of force to the head of the first metatarsal occurs as COM progress forward in the Mid Stance cycle. The timing of the forward advance of COM/Pelvis to sync with peak AT-PA force transfer to the head of the first metatarsal is shown with a red circle and vertical arrow.

If I had only shown the segment of Mid Stance in the grey rectangle at the beginning of Mid Stance on the left I could have made a case that the arch is weak and in need of support since Achilles Tension is zero and Plantar Aponeurosis Force (called strain) is very low. But this would be misinformation because it does not show the whole picture. If the foot were weak as is alleged it would be impossible for it to act in the capacity of a lever in propelling the weight of the body forward in locomotion.

In my next post I will explain how I used NABOSO surface science technology to confirm my optimal ramp angle.

 

ISOMETRIC STANCE MUSCLE TENSIONING SEQUENCE

Tensegrity

Tens(ion) + (Int)egrity 

The optimal ramp angle, as determined by the dynamic ramp device, is based on a stance predicated on the principles of Biotensegrity.

Fascial continuity suggests that the myofascia acts like an adjustable tensegrity around the skeleton – a continuous inward pulling tensional network like the elastics, with the bones acting like the struts in the tensegrity model, pushing out against the restricting ‘rubber bands: Tom Myers, Anatomy Trains (1.)

A ski stance based on the principles of bio-tensegrity must be learned and rehearsed in a step-by-step process. It is neither natural or intuitive although elite skiers and racers such as Shiffrin and Hirscher appear to have acquired the elements of Biotensegrity. Assuming a group of racers of equal athletic ability, the odds will favour those whose stance is based on Biotensegrity.

In a ski stance based on bio-tensegrity, tension in the arches of the feet extends to from the balls of the feet to the palms of the hands holding the poles.

  1. Start by standing barefoot on a hard flat floor or surface in a controlled environment such as your home. Where possible, use the same surface and place to rehearse the stance. If you have constructed a dynamic ramp assessment device, use this with the top plate set to level.
  2. Stand upright at attention. You should feel most of the weight under your  heels and less weight across the balls of your feet. This is normal. The fore-aft weight distribution is actually 50-50 heel to forefoot. But because the weight of the body is spread across the balls of the feet and along the outer aspect behind the small toes, more weight is sensed under the heels. Stand so your weight is distributed equally between both feet.
  3. Relax your hamstrings (in your thighs) and let your torso drop towards the floor.  Your knees will move forward as they flex and your ankles will dorsiflex. Your ankles should stop dorsiflexing on their own when the front of your knee caps are aligned approximately over the balls of your feet. This is the point where the tension in your soleus (calf muscle) peaks with the tension in plantar ligament of your arches. You should feel about the same pressure under the balls of your feet as you feel under your heels. But it should feel as if the circle of pressure under your heels has gotten bigger and your feet are more connected or integrated with the floor. I call this ‘rooted’ because it should feel as if your feet have sunk into the floor.
  4. While keeping your upper body erect, move slightly forward in the hips. You will quickly reach a point where you start to become unstable and feel as if you would fall forward onto your face if you moved farther forward in the hips. When you get to this point your big toes should press down on the floor on their own to try stabilize you. This is the forward limit of stability.
  5. Now move rearward in the hips until you start to feel the same instability. This is the rearmost limit of stability.
  6. Now bend forward from the waist. Do not curl your back. Bend from the hip sockets for the thigh bone (femur). This movement is actually thigh flexion. Lift your thigh to get the right feeling. As you bend forward from the waist, your buttocks will move rearward and upward as your ankles and knees straighten.  Reach forward with your arms as if you were going to hug a large barrel in front of you. Make sure the palms of your hands are facing each other with fingers curled and pointing towards each other.
  7. Find the place where your arms and head feel neutral to your spine. As your arms come into position you should feel your abdominal core and muscles in your back acquire tension. Slings Isometric stance
  8. Experiment by moving forward and rearward in the pelvis. As you move forward in the pelvis the pressure should increase under the balls of your feet. But you should not feel unstable. If anything, you should feel stronger and more stable. You should feel as if the weight of your head and shoulders is pressing your feet down into the floor.
  9. Increase the bend at your waist while keeping the pressure on the balls of your feet and heels until the top of your head is down by your knees. You should still feel very strong and stable in the feet. This is the lowermost limit of waist flexion.

Once you have acquired a kinesthetic sense of the bio-integrity of foot to hand tension, a sense of stability while pulsing the torso vertically up and down over the feet confirms a state of bio-tensegrity.

The photo below is of simple model I designed and constructed in 1993 to illustrate the basic concept of bottom up Biotensegrity and how the degree of passive tension in the plantar ligament of the arches of the feet and the vertical biokinetic chain is driven by the compression from weight of COM stacked over the foot.

The graphic below shows the continuum of tension from the balls of the feet to the opposite shoulders through the mechanism of the oblique posterior sling.

In my next post I will discuss what I term the NABOSO Effect.


  1. https://www.anatomytrains.com/fascia/tensegrity/

A DEVICE TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL PERSONAL RAMP ANGLE

This post contains the most important information I have ever written on skiing. It concerns the most important discovery I have made since I began to cast a critical eye on the positions of the various experts about 45 years ago; a method to determine the optimal personal ramp angle of a skier/racer.

By 1978, subjective experiments had taught me that a total ramp angle between the sole of the foot and the base of a ski of more than 3 degrees could have significant adverse effects on skier stability, balance and the ability to control the direction and especially the edge angle, of a ski. Wherever possible, I tried to limit total ramp angle (boot boards + bindings) to below or close to 3 degrees. But ski boot and binding construction often limited my ability to reach this objective. It was limitations in the construction of my current Head World Cup boot that presented challenges in getting the boot board ramp angle below 3 degrees. Through a concerted effort I had managed to reduce ramp angle to 3.3 degrees (bindings are zero) with a noticeable improvement in balance, ski and edge control. But the results of my recent NABOSO insole test suggested that the boot board ramp angle needed to be a lot lower.

The Dynamic Ski Stance Theory

A standard test of the human balance system is to subject a subject to dynamic changes in the platform under their feet. Over the past few years, I made numerous attempts to find the optimal ramp angle for skiing. One method involved assuming my strongest stance on a hard, flat level surface then stepping onto a plate shimmed to a fixed angle then repeating the process with the plate shimmed to a different angle. The results were inconclusive. Every time I went back to the hard, flat level starting surface my balance system seemed to reset. I had to get the angle of the tilted plate well over 3 degrees before I began to sense obvious instability. This led to my positing of a theory that the angle of a plate that a skier is standing on needs to be changed as the skier goes through a stance protocol designed to test stability and what I call a rooted or grounded connection where the skier feels as if their feet are literally rooted in the snow.

Research is Urgently Needed

Before I go any further I want to stress that I believe that an idea, no matter how compelling, is nothing more than a theory until it has been thoroughly tested and has withstood rigorous scrutiny. Even then, no theory should be immune to challenges. Research on this subject is urgently needed and long overdue. With this in mind, I designed the dynamic stance assessment device so it can be easily made with reasonable skills and readily available, inexpensive materials. I have recently completed a 4th generation prototype to serve this end. But a much more sophisticated device can and should be made and used by academic researchers. A servo motor driven ramp with a data acquisition package is the preferred option.

Stance Training is Essential

In order to obtain accurate results with the dynamic stance assessment ramp it is essential that the subject being tested undergo kinesthetic stance training and follow a protocol during testing that is designed to help the subject assess the effect of changes in ramp angle. It is disturbing that few of the skiers tested so far have a kinesthetic sense of the elements of a strong stance. Most have never sensed a strong stance. Worse, no ski pro or coach has ever discussed this crucial aspect of skiing with them. It appears as if it is simply assumed that a skier will automatically find their optimal stance. I can unequivocally state that this is not the case.

Dynamic Stance Ramp Test Results

  • The majority of skiers tested so far were most stable at ramp angles between 2.0 and 2.5 degrees.
  • A number of skiers, myself included, were most stable at close to or under 1.2 degrees.
  • One skier was most stable at 1.6 degrees.
  • One skier appeared to be relatively insensitive to ramp angle until it was above 2.8 degrees.
  • After training, most skiers were sensitive to changes of 0.1 degrees.
  • No skier tested so far was stable over 2.8 degrees.
  • Adding NABOSO insoles further reduced the ramp angle.

I tested most stable at 1.2 degrees; 2.1 degrees less than my existing boot board ramp angle. In order to reduce the boot board ramp angle to 1.2 degrees, I had to raise the toe end of my boot board 9 mm and lower the heel 2 mm for a total reduction of 11 mm.

First On Snow Impressions

Walking in my ski boots with the corrected boot board ramp angle immediately felt different. But the huge impact didn’t come until I started moving over the surface of the snow on my skis. Then the whole world seemed to change. I had a huge deja-vu moment; one that took me back to the solid, stable feeling I had under my feet in my first low-cut leather plastic soled ski boots. It was then that I realized that it was the jacked up heels of my first all plastic, rigid shell ski boots 45 years ago that had destroyed my balance and confidence on skis. This is a big miss for the ski industry, one that should have been caught by those who promote themselves as the experts in skiing, but wasn’t. This miss has huge implications for skiers at every level and ability all the way up to the World Cup. A skier, but especially a racer with a sub-optimal ramp angle will revert to an unstable weight on the heels, back seat Defensive Stance in which the skier is incapable of recruiting the enormous power of the glutes and optimal sensorimotor processes.

First generation device in action. Ratchet socket wrenches raise the ramp by turning bolts set into T-Nuts on each end.


Digital SmartTool electronic level accurate to 2 decimal places


Fourth Generation Stance Ramp assessment prototype. Two x two wood stiffening elements added to the platform.

The skiing of those whose ramp angle has been optimized is elevated to a whole new level provoking immediate comments like the difference is ‘night and day‘. After my transformation, I now believe that until ramp angle is optimized, everything else is irrelevant and that no amount of footbeds, orthotics, cants, alignment or custom fitting can overcome the adverse affect of sub-optimal ramp.

NABOSO: FIRST SKI TEST RESULTS

I finally got a chance to test Dr. Emily Splichal’s surface science small nerve stimulating NABOSO insoles (1.)

Naboso (meaning “barefoot” in Czech) is the first-ever small nerve proprioceptive material commercially available in the health and fitness industry. The skin on the bottom of the foot contains thousands of (small nerve) proprioceptors, which are sensitive to different stimuli including texture, vibration, skin stretch, deep …

As I typically do, I used a one on one test protocol with a NABOSO 1.5 insole in my left ski boot and my normal insole in my right boot. The results were nothing short of amazing. There was almost no difference in the feeling under the sole of my left (NABOSO) foot compared to the sole of my right (normal insole) foot. The NABOSO Effect (as I call it) in my left ski boot was nothing like the effect I experience in similar tests in my Xero Prios or Lems Primal 2 minimal shoes. You’re probably wondering why I was amazed if NABOSO was no better than my normal insoles. The fact that I felt little difference told me that something was seriously wrong with my ski boots.

The first thing I suspected was that there was too much ramp angle (aka zeppa) in the boot boards in my Head 335 World Cup boots. I can’t recall what the factory ramp angle. But I lowered the heel a lot and the reduced ramp angle seemed to work well compared to the original ramp angle. As a reference, the boot board zeppa angle in the Head RD boot is 4.0 according to Head literature. The zeppa in recreational ski boots can be as much as 7 degrees. Since 1978, I have known that too much boot board ramp angle can cause significant balance and ski control issues for skiers. But I had no way of accurately determining what the optimal zeppa angle should be. What appears to work well for one skier does not necessarily work for another skier. Zeppa is a crap shoot, a good guess, a lottery. A few skiers win the zeppa lottery. But most skiers lose. I decided that I had to find an accurate way to determine the optimal personal zeppa angle for skiers and especially racers.

Necessity is the mother of invention.

I had a need to know situation. In my next post I will describe the Dynamic Ramp Angle assessment  device that I designed and fabricated and the incredible results that happen when zeppa angle is in the optimal range and the NABOSO Effect kicks in. Prepare to be shocked by the results. I was. I am still in shock. If the results hold up, optimal boot board ramp angle will be a big miss for the ski industry.


  1. http://nabosotechnology.com

THE ZEPPA TIPPING POINT PROBLEM

A recent post on The Foot Collective FaceBook page titled Humans aren’t meant to walk on ramps!, highlighted the problems caused by elevating the heel above the forefoot known in the footwear industry as drop. Like the author of the post, I also wear zero drop shoes like Xero and Lems exclusively  (with NABOSO insoles) and spend all of my time indoors barefoot. Like the author, I too have experienced an immediate, unnatural and a sense of disorientation in terms of a connection with the ground, when I have worn dress shoes and winter boots with moderate drop.

While some amount of boot board ramp angle or zeppa appears to necessary for a strong, tensioned stance (what I refer to as a planted or rooted stance), the amount of zeppa is turning to be much less than I originally thought. It may be less than 1.5 degrees total (zeppa + delta). Assuming zero delta, there appears to be a very narrow range within which zeppa is optimal after which a tipping point is reached in terms of adverse effects on the motor control and balance systems.

It has also become apparent that some racers are tuning ski response by adjusting binding delta. Zeppa and delta each have a different effect on ski response especially edge control and the ability of a skier to resist the forces acting on them in the load phase of a turn. I will discuss issue this in a future post.


Humans aren’t meant to walk on ramps!

Powerful post by TFC Educator @optimize.physiotherapy
👣
Why do most shoes have a heel on them?
This really hit home the other day when I put on my winter boots (because it snows in November in Canada). Being someone who goes barefoot all day at work and at home (and wears zero drop shoes), it was a very unnatural feeling. It really threw my walking off, and I noticed the effects immediately. It changed the way I walked, stood, and made me use different muscles.
Humans are meant to have a flat base. No other animal wears mini ramps on their feet, but we do. The problem is that your body adapts to having a heel on, and it works different from a biomechanical perspective in any given movement pattern (the higher the heel, the worse the effect…but even most casual, running, and gym shoes have heels)


One thing it really does is affect your ankle/foot function. It has a huge effect on ankle ROM and tissue tension around the ankle. The problem is, when you wear a heel all day at work/at the gym/walking around, your tissues adaptively shorten and you don’t require as much ankle ROM. But then you take your shoes off and walk, go up your stairs, squat down to get things around the house etc. This is where people have issues. Not only at the foot/ankle but all the way upstream at other joints



Ankle ROM is incredibly important, and walking on a ramped surface all the time is incredibly unnatural. So do yourself a favour and spend less time in heeled footwear or get rid of it altogether


The Foot Collective is a group of Canadian physical therapists on a mission to help humans reclaim strong, functional and painfree feet through foot health education.

The Foot Collective are empowering people with the knowledge they need protect their feet from the dangers of modern footwear and the guidance to fix their own feet.

http://www.thefootcollective.com

BEYOND BIOMECHANICS BY DR. EMILY SPLICHAL

The following post appeared on the Evidence Based Fitness Academy (EBFA) fitness blog on February 6, 2018 under the title Beyond Biomechanics | Addressing Foot Pain with Sensory Stimulation (1.).

I have reproduced the post with the kind permission of Dr. Emily Splichal under the title Beyond Biomechanics by Dr. Emily Splichal because her emphasis on the role of sensory stimulation of the plantar foot on foot, lower limb and function of the entire body has both direct application to and implications for, skiing.

I have a theory on what I call The NABOSO Effect that explains how I think NABOSO insoles improve dynamic stability in the biokinetic chain that I will discuss in a future post. I have been testing NABOSO 1.0 and 1.5 for months.


Beyond Biomechanics | Addressing Foot Pain with Sensory Stimulation – by Dr. Emily Splichal

I want you to picture a human foot.   Now picture a person standing barefoot, and then walking barefoot.   Do you see the foot striking the ground and flexing under impact, only to re-stabilize and push off just a few milliseconds later?

Often times when we think of human movement we can’t help but to be drawn to the thought of joints moving and muscles contracting.   Or in the case of foot function we are quick to consider the mechanics of flat feet, high arches, pronation and supination.   However when we delve deeper into the science of human movement there is more than meets the eye.

The Two Sides of Foot Function

When I teach on behalf of EBFA Global or speak to my patients I always emphasize that there are two sides to foot function (and dysfunction) – biomechanical and neuromuscular.    Now both play an important role in foot function which means that both must be appreciated – however to solely treat foot pain with just one belief system in mind is inherently flawed.

In most Podiatric Medical Schools we are taught foot function and foot pathology solely from a biomechanical perspective.

This means that every patient is tested for foot mobility and told to stand statically to determine arch height and foot type.   Based on this foot-focused biomechanical assessment and foot classification system the patient’s cause of injury and treatment protocol is determined.   Some of the favorite treatment recommendations include motion-controlled footwear and custom-posted orthotic both of which are prescribed with the hopes of controlling foot-focused biomechanics and thereby reducing their foot pain.

Beyond Biomechanics

The other side of foot function is one that is driven from a neuromuscular perspective and integrates the science of sensory stimulation and fascial systems.   In the case of neuromuscular function every patient would be assessed for sensitivity of plantar mechanoceptors as well as co-activation patterns between the foot and the core.  The role of minimal footwear, myofascial releasing, breathing patterns and compensation patterns more proximal would all be considered.

So which is more appropriate?  Well it depends.   In certain cases there will be a stronger argument towards a more biomechanical influence and in others it is more sensory.  This means it really is a marriage between the two approaches that provides the greatest patient outcome.

Sensory Stimulation in Foot Pain

My practice and Podiatry career is built around bringing an awareness to the important role sensory stimulation has on foot function and foot pain.

With every step we take impact forces are entering the foot as vibration.  This vibrational noise stimulates unique mechanoceptors on the bottom of the foot and is used to coordinate the loading of impact forces through coordinated contractions of the intrinsic (small) muscles of the bottom of the foot.   This co-contraction leads to a stiffening or strengthening response of the foot.

Researchers such as Nigg et al. and Robbins et al. have demonstrated a direct relationship between sensory stimulation of the plantar foot and intrinsic muscle strength concluding that one is necessary for the other.   This means that if our footwear or orthotics disconnect us from sensory stimulation – as in the case of cushioned footwear – this can actually weaken our foot making us susceptible to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis and stress fractures.

Beyond Vibration Stimulation

Vibration stimulation is an extremely important sensory stimulation that enters our foot however it isn’t the only stimulation.   Another important stimulation is the ability for our foot to determine texture and if a surface is rough or smooth.   This information is used to help maintain dynamic balance (think walking on ice).

Enter the merkel disk mechanoceptors.   These superficial sensory nerves are used to determine what’s called 2 point discrimination which is translated to roughness or the texture of a surface.  Surface texture and insole texture is one of the most studied aspects of foot stimulation and posture or gait.  From decreased medial lateral sway in patients with Parkinson’s or MS to reduced prefrontal cortical activity in atheltes post-concusion the applications are promising!

One area that hasn’t been focused on for sensory stimulation and foot function is foot pain.  I am here to change the awareness around this concept and share the powerful application of sensory stimulation and foot pain.

As we mentioned earlier sensory stimulation of the foot leads to a contraction of the intrinsic muscles of the foot.   Intrinsic muscle contraction is not only a criticial step in the damping of impact forces but has also been shown to increase the medial arch and build co-activation contractions in the core.

 The Evolution of Textured Insoles

In October 2017 Naboso Technology launched the first-ever commercially available textured insole!   Naboso Technology essentially brought the science of touch and years of textured insole research to the market place giving new hope to people with foot pain.

Available in two strengths – Naboso 1.0 (1mm texture) and Naboso 1.5 (1.5mm texture) Naboso Insoles are designed to be worn without socks (or at the most very thin socks).  They fit into all footwear, are freely movable in all planes of motion and are only 3mm thick.

FROM THE GROUND UP

Are you barefoot strong?


Learn more about the power of texture! – http://www.nabosostechnology.com

  1. https://barefootstrongblog.com/2018/02/06/beyond-biomechanics-addressing-foot-pain-with-sensory-stimulation/