Correct Toes

WHO NEEDS FOOTBEDS? NO ONE

There are some who can benefit from footbeds or orthotics and some who do actually need them. But these groups are the rare exception. And they are unlikely to be skiers.

Orthotics. The pros / cons of orthotics in today’s society!

In a recent YouTube video (1.), Podiatrist & Human Movement Specialist, Dr Emily Splichal, explores the concept of orthotics and their role in today’s society. Dr. Splichal doesn’t pull any punches when she says:

“…..I have been through the conventional podiatric school and been fed pretty much the bullshit from podiatry of how every single person needs to be in orthotics, that our foot is not able to support itself without orthotics……if we do not use orthotics our foot is going to completely collapse  and you are going to lose your arch…….”

“……Our foot is designed to support itself. If we actually needed orthotics, we would be born…..we would come out of the womb, with orthotics on our feet.”

Meantime, The Foot Collective  asks (2.) Are you promoting weak feet?

  • Anything you use for artificial support at the feet (footwear with arch support & orthotics) your brain takes into account and accommodates for it.
  • That means if you provide your foot support your brain shuts down the natural arch supporters to reduce un-necessary energy expenditure.
  • Stop using support to help with pronation and understand why your feet pronate in the first place – because they are weak.
  • Strong feet = strong foundation = strong body.

The Real Source of Support for the Arch

Ray McClanahan, D.P.M. offers a perspective on the issue of Arch Support in his post on the CorrectToes blog (3.)

Are Custom Footbeds and Orthotics better than stock insoles?

In his post of August 20, 2017, Custom Foot Orthotics; No Better Than Stock Insoles (4.), Rick Merriam, of Engaging Muscles, explores the issue of orthotics in depth.

Prior to being told that supportive insoles are the way to go, I think it’s safe to say that all of those people didn’t know what they didn’t know.

The erroneous assumption that every skier needs footbeds or orthotics was made at a time when little  was known about the function of the foot and lower limb, especially in late stance. I was one of those who didn’t know what I didn’t know when initially when down the ‘the foot needs to be supported in skiing’ road up until I realized what I didn’t know and took steps to acquire the requisite knowledge.

Footbeds; is anyone checking what they do?

In 2000, I formed a company called Synergy Sports Performance Consultants (5). Synergys’ product was high quality information. One of my partners, UK Podiatrist, Sophie Cox, was trained by Novel of Germany and was one of the few experts in the world at that time on the Pedar system. Synergy did not make and/or sell footbeds or orthotics. Instead, we checked the effect of footbeds on skier performance. We performed a quick footbed check for a minimal fee of $20 using the sophisticated Novel Pedar pressure analysis technology.

Synergy was one of the first companies in the world to use the Novel Pedar pressure analysis system synchronized to video to acquire data on skier performance and analyze the captured data.  The Synergy team with diverse expertise studied the effect of ski boots and custom insoles on skier performance and identified functional issues in the body that needed to be addressed. It was a common finding that custom footbeds were significantly compromising skier performance, especially the ability to create the necessary platform under the foot on which to stand and balance on the outside ski.

Synergy offered a comprehensive 5 Step Performance Program that started with a footbed check. A key component was item 2., the Biomechanical Check.

With increasing recognition of the negative effect of most footwear on the user and criticism of the unproven claims made for footbeds and orthotics coming hard and fast, credibility in skiing is rapidly going downhill. It is time for proponents of custom insoles for ski boots to support their claims with solid evidence, especially evidence supported with data acquired during actual ski maneuvers. The technology to do this has existed since at least the year 2000.


  1. https://youtu.be/CIRf9WHmMXI
  2. http://www.thefootcollective.com
  3. https://www.correcttoes.com/foot-help/articles-studies/arch-support/
  4. http://www.engagingmuscles.com/2017/08/20/custom-foot-orthotics/
  5. DIGITAL SALVATION FOR THE SOLE [BACK TO THE FUTURE] –  http://wp.me/p3vZhu-24g

THE ORIGINS OF KNEE ANGULATION

A recent post on the Foot Collective Facebook page titled, Are you stable on 1 leg?, advises that if  you stand on one leg and look like the top row of pictures in the graphic below (red X), you have a foot & hip that are dysfunctional. This test is best done barefoot on a hard, flat, level surface.

Graphic with permission of Correct Toes

The lower photo (green checkmark) shows the alignment of a leg that is torsionally balanced (stiffened) in the ankle and knee joints. The foot and knee cap align straight ahead and square with the pelvis while the alignment of the knee with the foot, leg and thigh is substantially linear. If you can move to single limb support from two feet, easily achieve this alignment with minimal effort, sustain it for 30 seconds or more, and achieve similar alignment on both left and right legs, you probably have good stability in single limb support.

If you look like the upper photo (red x), it indicates dysfunction and especially a lack of torsional stability in the support limb. The problem is usually caused by constrictive, supportive, cushioned footwear and/or arch supports that, over time, deform feet and weaken the arches. Ski boots are one of the worst offenders in this regard.

If you and when you can achieve good stability in single limb support, you are ready to test the effect of footwear, especially your ski boots. Start by putting on your day to day footwear. Then do the same test on the same surface with each pair of shoes. Work your way up to your ski boots. Adjust the closures of your ski boots to the tension you normally set for skiing. If you are not able to quickly and easily assume the stable position shown in the lower photo (green checkmark), then you know that cause  is the footwear. You can then test the effects of insoles, including ski boot footbeds by removing them from the footwear, placing them on the test surface and moving to single leg support. While not perfect, these tests will help determine the cause of single support limb instability.

In skiing, an unstable outside support leg is characteristics of most skiers and even racers at the World Cup level. It is typically caused by ski boots interfering with the physiological processes that fascially tension the arches and forefoot that create the triplanar torsional stability of the ankle and knee joints of the biokinetic chain necessary to set up a platform under the outside ski to stand and balance on. But instead of addressing the underlying cause, the ski industry invented the term, knee angulation. Knee angulation is indicative of unbalanced torques acting about the uphill edges of the skis, especially the outside ski. When unbalanced torques are present about the edges of a skis or skis, unbalanced torques will also be present across the joints of the lower limb; not a good thing.

The alignment of the knee illustrated in the lower image (green checkmark) is seem as skier or racer enters the fall or rise line with outside leg extended, confirms the existence of a platform under the outside foot on which the skier or racer is balancing on with dynamic balance of torques across the joints of the ankle foot complex and knee. See my post MIKAELA SHIFFRIN AND THE SIDECUT FACTOR – http://wp.me/p3vZhu-1Uu

There is an abundance of information on programs to correct foot deformities,  muscle weakness and imbalances on web sites, YouTube and FaceBook groups such as The Foot Collective, Correct Toes, Feet Freex and the Evidence Based Fitness Academy – EBFA (Dr. Emily Splichal).

The Foot Collective web site has a series of posts on An Introduction to Feet and Footwear (1.) as well as a series of Foot-Casts (2.)

Meantime, a post on a web site called Rewire Me (3.) has an interview with Dr. Emily Splichal called No Shoes Allowed in which she discusses the importance of sensory information entering the body and the need to be able to process this information and handle the load and impact. Dr. Splichal suggests starting the process by getting the body and foot accustomed to sensory information without shoes acting as a barrier.

An excellent free paper with great graphics is The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function (4.)


  1. http://www.thefootcollective.com/an-introduction-to-feet-and-footwear/
  2. http://www.thefootcollective.com/footcast/
  3. https://www.rewireme.com/roses-blog/shoes-allowed/
  4. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/49/5/290.full#xref-ref-39-1