THE SKIER’S MANIFESTO: REBOOT OR DELETE?


Thank you for all who have commented. I listen and I hear you.

I started this blog as a manifesto for skiers to interact and contribute to the betterment of this great sport. I view knowledge as dynamic. Positions on issues should change in response to new and better information. Without this process learning cannot happen.

A significant challenge to making the Manifesto serve this purpose is that it has been difficult for me to know the nature of the information my readers are seeking and whether my posts are providing this information or even resonating with my readers. When put up a post I need to get feedback, suggestions and yes, criticism. If you don’t agree with my position on an issue please tell me. As a critical thinker (self-critical) I always entertain the posssibility that my position on issue is wrong. At the very least  my explanations may not be clear. If this is the case, I need to know.

If you want me to post on a certain subject, please let me know. Without this information I could be wasting my time.

The uncertainty as to the nature of the information my readers are seeking or subjects that will be found in search engines has resulted in post threads that are disjointed as expressed by the comment below from a follower:

While the blog might be improved by some minor rearranging of the sequence of blogs, the important thing is that the information is in there. You have, in fact, suggested sequences for the practical application of several principles, boot fitting for example.

An easy way for me to address this issue is to repost existing posts in a sequence that will group them together according to the subject. After I respost the older post I can edit it in response to comments. So instead of deleting the blog I am proposing culling some posts and reposting and collating existing posts. But I can’t do it without your input and especially your suggestions.

I believe a good starting point is a discussion of how our hard-wired mechanism for walking applies to skiing and especially what is called steering. Does everyone agree? If not please suggest a subject.

 

58 comments

  1. David! A much better idea to do what you suggest in the last two paragraphs above as opposed to hitting the round file button.
    It is possible that many have not commented out of being a bit overwhelmed both by your depth of knowledge and the intimidatingly technical nature of your writing. I am probably one of those! However, as I have been working toward the L3 PSIA alpine cert I am better able to both understand your posts and find that they increase my knowledge base for application elsewhere. I also am finding that your work is known by some of my more tech oriented peers here in Aspen Snowmass.
    I am going to start posting links from your work to our FB group for L3 and above MA meetings as I think your work will stimulate some discussion and the kind of discourse that helps us all think and learn. Not sure if you ever get out west but if you do next winter contact me. We have a Wednesday after ski MA associated with the group that is more an informal forum than the formal MA training for the cert exams of various levels. A talk and Q & A by you would not be a waste of your time I am pretty sure.

    1. Thank you for your comment. The lack of a frame of reference with definitions for terms like ‘balance’, ‘steering’, ‘pivoting’ has made it extremely difficult to enter into meaningful, objective discussions on skiing. It has also made it challenging for me to connect with readers who are influenced by official positions. To move forward it is essential that knowledge evolve with new information as it becomes available. As this happens, positions that were tentative or largely based on uninformed observations may need to be revised or, in some cases, deleted and replaced.

      Feedback from readers is essential for me to provide content that resonates. Without it a lot of my post material can end up missing the mark. If you would like me to write on a specific subject or would like me to clarify an issue but don’t want your name published you can leave a comment preceded by a note PLEASE DO NOT PUBLISH.

  2. David,
    I am a ski instructor in Italy. I have been reading your posts for a while and I find them very valuable and thank you for sharing your knowledge. Walking and skiing is a very good inspiration of thoughts, especially because our motor system is based on emotions and skills. I must say that I have a hard time reading complex sentences and physics, although I am very interested in the concepts the reading is hard for me. Would it be too much work to add some very short videos, for just some difficult issues to understand?
    I hope you will continue your posts in the future and thank you so much for all the work you have been doing so far

    1. I am glad you are finding my information helpful. The challenge I face is that I have limited resources and skill sets to work with in terms of generating videos and other than simple graphics. What I can do is create a series of screen shots of videos and explain what is happening as the video progresses. I can also generate basic graphics and clarify issues that you don’t understand with your input.

  3. Hi David,

    Thank you for the critique of my “disjointed” comment. It is apparent from this post that you had a much more comprehensive idea in mind when you stated that you could “see no practical way to present it in a coordinated sequential manner” in reference to the “wealth of knowledge” contained in the Manifesto. My anxiety over the imminent loss of the Manifesto drove me to send the comment ASAP and skip a more thorough editing. My apologies.

    Hopefully you will include the series on “Platform Angle Mechanics” in the revised Manifesto. I could follow the series well but, the final explanation in Part12 left me confused. How can a force against the medial vertical sidewall of the boot by the head of the first metatarsal in the plantar/torque arm/180 degree plane create an upward force in the 90 degree plane at the lateral side? It seems more likely that such a force would be caused by the pronation/eversion action of the foot rotating about the long axis of the foot as the skier applies downward force at the center of control. How can the medial force be transferred 90 degrees, from one plane to the other?
    Or, are you saying that the medial sidewall force rotates around the inside edge in a 90 degree transverse plane (i.e. at right angle to the long axis of the ski) as suggested by the gray arrow in the final diagram? Drawing a circle centered on the dot above the black triangle and extending the curve of the gray arrow makes this possibility look more likely.

    I am further confused by the term “eccentric torque arm” which does not appear in any other Part and is not defined in Part 12.

    Also, what is the role of riser plates and is there a correct height?

    This is an important subject. Please help me understand.

    Thank you,
    Herb Jones

    1. “How can a force against the medial vertical sidewall of the boot by the head of the first metatarsal in the plantar/torque arm/180 degree plane create an upward force in the 90 degree plane at the lateral side?”

      Good question. The issue has its origins in the persistent comment in skiing that elite skiers stand and balance on their outside ski in conjunction with the persistent comment that sidecut makes a ski turn.

      For decades I have believed that elite skiers can stand and balance on their outside ski as if they were standing on solid ground even though I could not do it no matter how hard I tried. But this is only possible in the bottom of the C of a turn when a skier has to resist the force of gravity.

      Standing on the body of a ski on edge with force applied to it by the weight of the skier requires an opposing reaction force. The question is what is the mechanism? Simply saying that it happens does not impart understanding.

      Sidecut in itself does not cause a ski to turn. A ski with no camber (flat) will only contact a smooth, flat solid surface at the limits of its sidecut when set at an angle to the surface. To carve an arc into a surface a downward force must be applied to a ski to reverse the camber in conjunction with a rotational force applied to the limits of the sidecut that cause the edges to cut into the surface of the snow which will resist or ‘react’ against the applied force with a reaction force. If the inside edge at the running center of the ski acts as the pivot for the force applied to sidecut where will the reaction force manifest?

      If the height of the point where horizontal force is applied to the shell wall by the inner aspect of the ball of the foot in relation to the base of the ski increases how will this affect the torsional force applied to the limits of sidecut?

      This is an extremely difficult issue to understand and was an extremely difficult problem to solve that required critical thinking. It is important to understand the mechanism because it has been my consistent observation that few skiers even at the WC level can (dynamically) balance on their outside ski and worse, aren’t even aware of what they can’t do. Even worse, is that without boots, skis and bindings that permit this no amount of conditioning, training or coaching can overcome the limitations equipment impose on a skier.

      Please keep the questions coming.

      1. ” If the inside edge at the running center of the ski acts as the pivot for the force applied to sidecut where will the reaction force manifest?”

        I understand pivot to mean pivot point for the force of rotation in the 180 degree/torque arm plane at the inside base plane/ski edge. Rotational force of the foot I will assume is what you mean by eccentric torque arm. Is this correct?? The shovel of all skis I am aware of, is wider than the tail at the limit prioritizing front end steering control when the ski is flexed (camber reversed) and the edge engaged with the snow . The reaction force would seem to oppose the applied 180 degree force, in the equal and opposite concept, resisting the steering force primarily at the sidecut limit at the shovel promoting the cutting action of the edge as it forms a groove for the rest of the edge to follow. Is this correct or close??

        “If the height of the point where horizontal force is applied to the shell wall by the inner aspect of the ball of the foot in relation to the base of the ski increases how will this affect the torsional force applied to the limits of sidecut.”

        Increasing the height of the point of force on the side of the boot shell would act like increasing the length of a lever, increasing torsional force over the edge. The fulcrum of the lever is the edge and there would be more leverage at the ski’s narrowest point and more resistance to the leverage at the limits of sidecut, more at the tip than the tail. It would seem that the boot/binding/ski act as a unit and the lateral/outside edge would follow along being levered up like the load on a hand truck. But you are suggesting that there is something much less obvious going on , perhaps due the multiple variable forces acting simultaneously sideways and downwards along with the inertia of forward movement??

        This is indeed difficult and challenging issue to understand, also interesting and engaging.

        In your last paragraph I believe you meant to say “It is…my observation that few skiers even at the world cup level can (dynamically) balance on their outside ski and worse, aren’t even aware of what they can’t do.” or maybe “It…most skiers…cannot…”

        Herb

      2. Good catch. In case it isn’t obvious the recent paper by the mathematician that I cited in my post on Fluid Skiing has provided further support for my hypothesis that dynamic fluid skiing utilizes the hardwired processes of walking. Reading this paper and reviewing my posts led to the missing piece of the puzzle that explains the role of ‘steering’ serves to reorient the position of COM so it drives the process that creates a dynamically balanced platform under the outside foot in a turn. Dynamically balance means that neuromuscular processes limit torque oscillations of the platform created by the outside ski that affect the base of the pendulum.

        “But you are suggesting that there is something much less obvious going on, perhaps due the multiple variable forces acting simultaneously sideways and downwards along with the inertia of forward movement??”

        Yes, and I will attempt to try to explain how it works.

      3. David,

        I do not fully understand all the arguments contained in the exchange of comments between yourself and Herbejones below (I understand most of them, but no all).
        However, I gather from those two comments (and especially from your comments at the end) that you are suggesting a solution to the Dynamic balancing conundrum that seems to go beyond the explanation you provided in the corollary of your posts on Balance Platform creation (that is, the creation of un upward forcé in the outer part of the stance ski as a result of steering forcé applied at the sidewall next to the big toe)….are you suggesting that your previous solution was not thorough enough? and/or that you are providing new/additional information on how to finetune that key mechanism for achieving an improved Dynamic balancing skiing? If so that would be an amazing corollary on the corollary, wow.

      4. “….are you suggesting that your previous solution was not thorough enough? and/or that you are providing new/additional information on how to finetune that key mechanism for achieving an improved Dynamic balancing skiing? If so that would be an amazing corollary on the corollary, wow.”

        Yes. It was literally staring me and everyone in the face. I found the answer will performing a critical review of the gait cycle of walking and the role of the pelvic rotating about the femur of the stance leg towards the ball of the foot as COM advances in the progression of stance in dynamic single limb balance. Suddenly I (finally) understood why steering is an integral part of fluid dynamic skiing and why it is important to ask WHY an elite skier is doing something instead simply labelling the move. I will start posting on this soon.

  4. While your posts and the comments to them are very helpful to me as an an instructor, one of the issues that makes this blog difficult to use is the system of organization. I find it hard to follow threads or find an index to search through. Thank you.

    1. Studies like this will make it clear why the cyclical loading pattern of walking is important to skiing: Active regulation of longitudinal arch compression and recoil during walking and running – Luke A. Kelly, Glen Lichtwark, and Andrew G. Cresswell

  5. In your posts you seem to put 90% (so to speak, if not 100%) of your focus and effort in explaining the role of the outside/stance ski, while I have read little in this blog about the role of the inside ski. In the last couple of years I feel I have managed to use the inside ski (foot, leg, half side of the body, actually) to help the outside/stance ski perform better. May be you could provide clarity into how both sides of the body créate synergies and/or antagonisms that, I believe, are conducive to higher Skiing levels.

    1. The key is to have all the skier’s weight supported on the downhill ski by using the inside ski to help maintain the position of COM. But as you are finding the position of the inside ski and where the center of the force is applied is important to maintaining the alignment of the pelvis which must be rotated towards the ball of the outside foot by actively rotating the outside leg and foot internally; i.e. towards the transverse center of the torso/pelvis. I will explain the mechanism in the posts on walking.

      1. …and this explanation is very much related to the one mentioned above “the missing piece of the puzzle that explains the role of ‘steering’ serves to reorient the position of COM so it drives the process that creates a dynamically balanced platform under the outside foot in a turn.”…and even more amazingly, you suggest that there is a neuromuscular process that helps to achieve perfect Dynamic balance…may be analogous to the neuromuscular process that in the fore/aft plane helps locate the COP in the right place, that is, under the 1st met of the stance foot. Hence, the steering would help in the frontal plane, in fact, it also helps in the sagital plane at the same time…and everything would be coordinated by the CNS…wow, I am all eyes and ears.

    2. And now you’re closing in on the truth, Enrique! Almost everything I have done to improve my skiing has to do with focusing on the unweighted or less weighted foot. If you lift and turn the inside foot, the outside foot has no choice, but to follow. You can change turn radius, You can side-slip or carve as you prefer and as you need. And you can put it down and start a new turn, either by rolling onto new edge or actively twisting, as style and terrain demand. When you do that, the responsibility switches to your other foot. This works on groomers, moguls, powder and spring slush. It works at speed and it works going slowly.

      Of course, the school of thought that says just roll your OUTSIDE carving foot from big toe to little toe side and just roll into turn works, too, but, for me, that’s far more intimidating. I can do it on nice groomed slopes at 25-35mph, but above that, I want a solid focus on carving ski right from the beginning.

      Ultimately, we learn differently and what works for one person fails for another.

      1. I prefer the approach on gaining an understanding and appreciation of how the body should ideally work in an activity be it walking or skiing as a reference to understand why some cannot perform this way. Understanding the biomechanics of walking is a good reference because the issues apply to skiing.

  6. All six hundred ski resorts in Europe have just been closed down due to the coronavirus crisis….. In Spain, like in Italy (and son in France) we will all be forced to spend the next several weeks in cuarentena….I am all yours!!

  7. I once saw an instructor teaching a skier by making her remove skis and start walking. He asked her what she did first. She offered several answers – all wrong. Correct answer: Lean forward.

    1. Correct answer? Initiate a forward fall by swinging one leg forward. This will trigger the spinal reflexes and the neural equivalent of GPS on steroids that will bring the swing leg into position for the foot to land on under COM and balance over. If it sounds a lot like a good ski turn sequence it is because the mechanism is similar.

      1. This was a while ago. Either way initiates a forward move. Real question is whether turn initiation is a forward move or a lateral move following lateral weight transfer or tipping motion (ref Harald Harb and Lido Tejada-Flores) —– here we go!

      2. It involves an arcing diagonal movement that starts by extending the knee of the inside leg.I am going to relate the movement pattern to walking. While it’s not exactly the same the loading sequence and the inverted pendulum action are relevent. Extending the inside knee changes the pendulum axis point and initiates a pendulum swing in the opposite direction.

      3. Chicken vs egg first? If you lean forward a leg will lift automatically. OTOH, if you extend leg forward you may or may not lean forward.

      4. Not necessarily. Initiating a walking cycle requires a conscience effort in what is called executive control. Lifting a leg and swinging forward causes COM to exceed the forward limits of the support limb. This cues the CNS to engage automatic neuromuscular sequencing. The conscious effort signals the CNS of the intent to walk. Simply leaning forward doesn’t and incurs the risk of a forward fall.

      5. An instructor once told me to transfer weight from outside to inside ski at end of turn. I couldn’t do it. Another told me to lift my outside foot at end of turn. Weight transfer was automatic and instant. All this was in the days of one foot at a time skiing.
        Then new-age instructor and modern skiers just rolled from up-hill edges to down hill edges simultaneously.
        Both styles work depending on circumstances. One based on walking, one based on dancing. Most important lesson was that in walking style, alignment no-where near as critical as in new-school.
        In alignment I trust – but good luck finding shop that understands it. My guess is one in ten.

      6. I have heard similar stories; relax and just fall into the new turn, relax your downhill leg, transfer weight to the uphill ski and ‘balance on it’. Yes, I tried them all and was puzzled why elite skiers flowed from turn to turn and made it look as ‘easy as walking’. That’s when the lights came on for me.

  8. More comments .. what I’m interested most is applied biomechanics to skiing. We as ski pros teach/coach all kind of movements. For many we understand how the body functions but for many others we just do it because it was shown it works not because we know why it works – we just make guesses.
    The other aspect is the boot fitting. The theory is interesting but until the industry changes I would like to see how to practically apply it to the boots we already have. I know you have addressed this on your blogs but as you said a reposting with mentioned purpose would help. Maybe adding tips and tricks here and there to.
    There are other interesting questions like: is Booster strap working? Should you strap over the tongue only or over the shell? How much should you tighten the buckle over the instep? How to determine the right flex for your boots? How to adjust the flex of the boots you already have? What can you do so your touring boots do not give you a black toe because your foot is sliding forward when you skin on flats? What can you do if the boot liner has a tear that is giving you blisters? etc.

  9. “a good starting point is a discussion of how our hard-wired mechanism for walking applies to skiing” – excellent idea!
    I read and I agree that skiing is like walking. Understudying how our body functions is very valuable for a ski professional.

  10. Thank you for all of the information you have posted over the years. It changed the way I looked at the fit and function of the ski boot. The idea of allowing the foot to function was so contrary to what was offered by most boot filters who wanted to rigidly constrain the foot. I decided to take fitting of my wife’s and my ski boots in house!
    My wife had suffered for years, the pain she suffered because of her boots caused such frustration that she could not perform to the level that she was capable of and she was about to quit skiing.
    I applied the principles that I had learned from your blogs, and whilst not going down such a radical route of major surgery of the liners, I sourced a boot that was wide enough in the fore foot to allow the foot to function, Reducing ramp angle and having a foot bed that did tot fix the arch, whilst allowing the control of the heel hold and proper fit around the shaft that allowed the ankle to work. The transformation was miraculous! Now my wife can ski all day without needing to remove boots and ski with poise control and finesse in all conditions. I changed by boots along the same lines too.
    Thank you.

  11. I still enjoy understanding the physics of skiing. I am one of those nightmares for instructors. Usually engineers and doctors with no natural athletic ability. I still remember telling an instructor, “Don’t’ tell me what to do. Tell me what you feel when you do it so maybe I can duplicate the feeling.” He was baffled.

  12. 2020 was my fifteenth as a Ski Instructor. When I started I based most my lessons on the teaching plan familiar to most Austrian Instructors. Over the years my style of teaching has evolved to be a little more flexible in my approach to getting the message across.
    This year I have been focusing on the similarities between walking and skiing, and I have had some very positive results. My best have been with intermediate skiers who are too static, or who favour one leg all the time.
    I may have wandered a little from the text of the teaching plan but I always keep the first two line of the general basis for ski instructing in mind:
    1. from easy to more difficult;
    2. from the known to the unknown.
    I for one would like to see a thread exploring the link between walking and skiing.

  13. I am new to your website and I love it. Don’t shut it down! The reason I like it so much is that your early ski boot story is exactly the same as mine. I went from being a great natural skier in my early teens in the 60’s in my Koflach boots. I was king of Wedelen in 1967 and then came my Lange boots. I loved the first pair of Lange standards that were a size and a half too big but I soon decided that I was too good for them so I bought a smaller pair of Lange Comps . I can remember the first time skiing in them and I couldn’t make a turn. Where was the freedom, the balance, the easiness of skiing. 53 years and 60 ski boots later your ideas are transforming my skiing. I too went through the perfect fit idea and 45 years of custom footbeds and the only thing that saved me was to ski with my boots barely buckled.
    This year I have changed the ramp angle of my boot board and given more room for my toes to splay. I also cut off the toe box of my liner and Frankensteined a bigger toe box on that gave me more room and ditched the footbeds. Those changes have brought me back to where my skiing used to feel like.I would like to know more about the birdcage boot and especially the pad over the instep and how to make one.
    I also really like the comment area of your posts. I’m a level 3 instructor in Utah and love the technical back and forth. On the SR stance is your COM over toes or in front of ankles when practicing in bare feet and skiing.

    1. I will discuss what is called Center of Force (COF) and Center of Mass (COM) variance in relation to the SR Stance. Both are affected by what is called ‘steering’. I will tie this into the gait cycle in walking so the implications of ‘steering’ (aka maneuvering or positioning) the outside ski across the gravity or fall line to aline COF and COM will make sense.

  14. Please consider rebooting the posts, it has been a valuable resource for me. I’m a training director at a ski school and this information helps me.

  15. I totally agree with you that the first and most important issue is relating walking to Skiing. From what I have already read in your excelent posts, understanding this connecting has proven very very helpful to change my Skiing to the better, actually, your inputs have helped me revolutionise my Skiing. I am so greatful to you becuase I have been able to reconfigure my boots in a way that have completely changed the way I use them.
    You are right also to propose as a very important issue the STEERING thing….if I may say, this is a very very very controversial matter in Skiing blogs. I can confirm that my Skiing has improved dramatically by not only reconfiguring my boots, but also by learnig a different way to ski: lateral movements only. Hence, the posts on steering have confused me a bit, because I am not sure how to reconcile the steering you propose with the lateral only movements that in the last four years have changed for the better the way I ski.

    Thank you so much for sharing your inmense knowledge in your posts, they are not only very helpful but very entertaining becuause they are very well and cleverly written. Please keep on doing what you are so generously doing.

    1. Side to side only is a bad thing brought in by shaped ski and the marketing of easy skiing, quick learning. I hope we’ll see a blog post about that. The proper movement is side to side and fore-aft using the entire length of the ski. It is a blend.

  16. Sounds like a good idea. Given that your own understanding of the mechanisms at play have developed, perhaps you could archive all the previous posts with a note that some of them are obsolete. For instance, you have rendered your own diagram of turn cycles obsolete. Likewise the stuff on 2.3 degrees of net ramp angle as a starting point for testing.

    Perhaps a good start would be a ‘relaunch’ post outlining your current position. Sounds like a good idea to begin with your proposed post on gait mechanics and the CNS and how they relate to skiing, then one on what this means for ski boots. Or do it all in one post so it’s in one place? .

    Regarding organising the material – I recently came across a ski forum in which someone tried to discuss your modifcations, and one of the obstacles to proper discussion was the consensus that the site is hard to follow. They were all there to talk about ski boots, but found it hard to navigate your blog. It was mentioned that follow-up posts that were promised were not forthcoming. It strikes me as perfectly natural that someone should think tangentally, so it must be the architecture of the site that’s the issue. I’m not sure what the solution is, because I don’t know enough about websites or blogging, but that’s third-party feedback it seems worth passing on.

    Glad to see you’re considering keeping this stuff out there.

  17. David
    Your info is so valuable. ! I would suggest a progression of posts to help link everything together. Love reading this stuff
    Cheers
    Cam

  18. I have been following your boot mechanics posts for a while and I have some questions. In the regular bootfitting world there is a lot of talk about cuff alignment vs. sole canting and orthotics. I’m completely on board with ditching the orthotics, but I feel that internal canting of the boot board might be an additional variable since different orthotics change the eversion/inversion in the ankle and foot. I’ve been looking at Harb Ski Systems for ideas on evaluating canting by observing skiers on snow, which makes a lot of sense to me vs. static measurements in the shop. I’m struggling with the actual adjustments and when sole grinding is called for, vs when moving the cuff will suffice.

    1. The issues you raise have to be viewed in the context of the ability to align COF (Center of Force) and COM (Center of Mass) when the outside ski is maneuvered (steered) into position to align COF and COM with the gravity line (aka fall line because it is the line that gravity will cause a skier to fall down assuming there is no momentum acting on COM).

      The so called ‘alignment’ issues that boot-fitters claim they do for a skier typically do not even recognize the real feet alignment issues that can be compared to a car whose front wheels are toed in or out causing the car to track poorly and pull to one side. Bad feet alignment is common and usually has its origins in shortened external rotators and lengthened internal rotators with one leg toed out more than the other. This can be fixed with therapies like myofascical release. But they cannot be fixed with cants, shims, footbeds or custom orthotics.

      1. I have been trying to emulate the dorsal fit system that you recommend for a couple years now, and the results have been fantastic. I actually pour my own boot boards with a casting polymer in order to get them flat. I live in barefoot shoes, work with a Rolfer consistently, and agree with most everything that I have seen on your blog. My experience working with athletes is that by adjusting the canting of the boot, whether by adjust the cuff angles, or under foot shims, I have seen racers go from tentative A-framing to dragging knuckles with parallel shins on the next run. I agree that biomechanics are important, but considering the variations between boot companies on the off the shelf lateral cuff angles, I don’t see how it can possibly be a non-issue. COF varies due to the edge angle of the ski, which is altered by the angle of the lower leg and it’s relative angle to the ski base. For any given angle of the ski on the snow, the skier and COM have to stack along that line. The adjustment is done by the skier with hip and knee angulation, if the angles aren’t right, they won’t be able to adjust into that sweet spot.

      2. “For any given angle of the ski on the snow, the skier and COM have to stack along that line. The adjustment is done by the skier with hip and knee angulation, if the angles aren’t right, they won’t be able to adjust into that sweet spot.”

        The adjustment can only be done by the neuromuscular processes of the skier. As Kommissarov points out in his paper the fluid pendulum action of a dynamic skier does not require forceful (active) participation and the skier must make sure they do not inhibit (by thinking) this natural process.

        COM and the Force reaction must be normal to the transverse aspect of the base plane of the outside ski. The environment created by the ski boot and bindings (delta) must enable neuromuscular processes to effect tight control of base plane torque osscillations. The mechanism is extremely complex with many factors and not even remotely obvious by observation. In depth analysis is required. I doubt many of the factors have never been explored.

  19. David,

    I went to your blog site today and was saddened to see you were planning to delete it. I vote for a re-boot. I first discovered your site about a year ago and started tinkering with my boots and bindings to allow my feet to function as designed. At 63 years young, I am skiing better than ever. To me, the blog has been a treasure trove of valuable information. I can’t for the life of me understand why some try to discredit theories based on sound engineering and biomechanical analysis. I for one will continue to follow whatever you have for us. Sorry for not providing feedback sooner.

    Bob C
    Maryland

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