Because of the complex issues I am about to start discussing in the next series of posts I am providing supplemental reference information to assist the reader in understanding the issues associated with platform angle mechanics and biomechanics and underlying process of dynamic stability.
Background of events leading up to the outside ski platform ground balance solution
In late 1989, after gaining valuable insights from the medical textbook, The Shoe In Sport, I had formulated a hypothetical model that explained the macro details of the mechanics and biomechanics of platform angle and the mechanism of user CNS postural balance control.
Insights from The Shoe in Sport:
Correct positioning of the foot is more important than forced constraint and “squeezing” the foot.
Forward sliding of the foot should not be possible.
From a technical (skiing) point of view, the ski boot must represent an interface between the human body and the ski. This implies first of all an exchange of steering function, i.e., the skier must be able to steer as well as possible, but must also have a direct (neural) feedback from the ski and from the ground (snow).
The comment about the importance of correct positioning of the foot and the ski boot representing an interface between the human body and the ski gave me insights that led to the discovery of key mechanical of the foot whose position in relation to the inside edge and X-Y axes of the ski affects the transfer and control of steering and platform forces to the ski and control.
When I wrote the application for US Patent No 5,265,350 in late 1991 and early 1992 I described the mechanics and biomechanics of plantar angle in great detail knowing this information would be freely available to the entire world to use once the patent was published. The only exception was the information covered by claims. Known mechanics and biomechanics are not in themselves patentable.
Patents and Research
It is important to note that patents, even when granted, do not apply to the use of a patented device for the purpose of pure research. Knowing this at the time I wrote the patent, I described the Birdcage research vehicle in sufficient detail with many figures to enable the device to be constructed at minimal cost so research could be conducted by others as soon as possible for the purpose of advancing the knowledge base and science of alpine skiing.
The following unedited text is excerpted from the patent.
……. the teaching of this (patent) application is that force must be applied and maintained only to specific areas of the foot and leg of the user while allowing for unrestricted movement of other areas.
The performance of such mediums (skate blades and skis) is largely dependent on the ability of the user to accurately and consistently apply forces to them as required to produce the desired effect.
In addition, in situations where the user must interact with external forces, for example gravity, the footwear must restrain movements of the user’s foot and leg in a manner which maintains the biomechanical references with the medium with which it is interacting.
Precise coupling of the foot to the footwear is possible because the foot, in weight bearing states, but especially in monopedal function, becomes structurally competent to exert forces in the horizontal plane relative relative to the sole of the footwear at the points of a triangle formed by the posterior aspect and oblique posterior angles of the heel, the head of the first metatarsal and the head of the fifth metatarsal. In terms of transferring horizontal torsional and vertical forces relative to the sole of the footwear, these points of the triangle become the principal points of contact with the bearing surfaces of the footwear.
The most important source of rotational power with which to apply torque to the footwear is the adductor/rotator muscle groups of the hip joint. In order to optimally link this capability to the footwear, there must be a mechanically stable and competent connection originating at the plantar processes of the foot and extending to the hip joint. Further, the balanced position of the skier’s centre of mass, relative to the ski edge, must be maintained during the application of both turning and edging forces applied to the ski. Monopedal function accommodates both these processes.
Yet a further problem relates to the efficient transfer of torque from the lower leg and foot to the footwear. When the leg is rotated inwardly relative to the foot by muscular effort a torsional load is applied to the foot. Present footwear does not adequately provide support or surfaces on and against which the wearer can transfer biomechanically generated forces such as torque to the footwear. Alternatively, the footwear presents sources of resistance which interfere with the movements necessary to initiate such transfer. It is desirable to provide for appropriate movement and such sources of resistance in order to increase the efficiency of this torque transfer and, in so doing, enhance the turning response of the ski.
In skiing, the mechanics of monopedal function provide a down force acting predominantly through the ball of the foot (which is normally almost centred directly over the ski edge). In concert with transverse torque (pronation) arising from weight bearing on the medial aspect of the foot which torque is stabilized by the obligatory internal rotation of the tibia, the combination of these forces results in control of the edge angle of the ski purely as a result of achieving a position of monopedal stance on the outside foot of the turn.
The edge angle can be either increased or decreased in monopedal function by increasing or decreasing the pressure made to bear on the medial aspect of the foot through the main contact points at the heel and ball of the foot via the mechanism of pronation. As medial pressure increases, horizontal torque (relative to the ski) increases through an obligatory increase in the intensity of internal rotation of the tibia. Thus, increasing medial pressure on the plantar aspect of the foot tends to render the edge-set more stable.
There are many figures that illustrate the concepts expressed in the above text which I will include in future posts.
The photo below shows the strain gauges (black disks) fit to the 1991 research vehicle. These gauges recorded first metatarsal forces under and to its inner or medial aspect and the outer and rearmost aspects of the heel bone.
I’ve learned a lot since the above information was made public after the patent was issued on November 30, 1993.
In Part 10, I will discuss the mechanism by which forces applied by the ball of the foot to what I call the Control Center of the platform provide quasi ground under the outside foot and leg in the load phase of a turn for a skier to stand and balance on.