By on the level, I am suggesting that Shiffrin may have a much lower zeppa-delta ramp angle than her competition.

Here are some screen shots from the March 18, 2018 Are Slalom where Shiffrin won by  1.58 seconds. She is on and off her edges in milliseconds as she just seems to pop from turn to turn – Total Domination From Shiffrin (1.)

Compare the angles of Shiffrin’s ankle, knee and hip in the photo below to those of her competition in the second and third photos below.

Notice how extended Shiffrin’s lower body is as she exits the rise line and enters the bottom of the turn in the photo below from a training session earlier in the year.

Extended in the Are Slalom.

Out of the start her knees and ankles are almost straight!

In my next post I will explain what I think is happening and why.



  1. Would like to hear your thoughts on the different effects of footboard ramp versus binding delta.
    For me personally. if my binding delta isn’t zero, I can barely ski. I’m much less sensitive to ramp angle. Looking forward as always to your next post.

    1. More than ever I see a need for research on the effect of ramp angle. The ramp angle issue has bothered me for 40 years. I have long thought that a small amount of ramp could be beneficial. The unanswered question that remains is how much is optimal and at what point is it destabilizing?

      I will post on zeppa vs delta in the future. For now, both zeppa and delta affect the angle of the plantar plane under the foot and the plane of the base of the ski. But zeppa affects the forward lean angle of the shaft of the boot in relation to the base plane of the ski and base plane of the boot sole in relation to the base plane of the ski. Delta also affects the stand height of the plantar plane under the ball of the foot above the base plane of the ski below.

      The prudent approach is a delta angle of zero with small variances in zeppa to find the optimal angle which may vary slightly for different course and piste conditions and different ski constructions. Guessing is not a good option.

  2. That race was replayed on an NBC season highlights program this morning. I was struck by the way she was able to pump her skis for more speed on the flat just before the last pitch similarly to the way she hustles on the flat(er) finish runout. The other thing that is striking is the quietness of her upper body and her hand discipline especially in contrast to Frieda Hansdotter whose hands are way high bringing her COM up. Wendy Holdener seems to use a low stance to compensate for possible ramp-delta or cuff flex issues reminding me of my own misalignment issues. I can almost feel what her thighs must feel like at the end of a race and it shows how well conditioned these athletes are that she can be so competitive with that stance. If you can call 1.58 seconds competitive.
    I’m curious about Shiffrin’s total winning margin time over the entire season. It must approach 30 seconds. Meanwhile the men’s downhill title was decided by a total of 0.10 sec.
    Shiffrin’s technique is more efficient and therefore less tiring allowing her to push hard all the way through the finish. That is one of most notable aspects of employing a low ramp angle which allows you to stand taller in a less tiring stance!

  3. Suggest you gave the right explonation in the next post, than could that be also the explanation why 92% of the tourist skiërs cannot carv….

    1. Right explanation for what? The reason I started this blog was to provide a forum for an intelligent, productive dialogue for the purpose of advancing skiing as a science. If you have something to contribute, jump in.

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