There is no point in continuing my discussion of the mechanics of balance on the outside ski because the odds are great that ski boots are preventing most skiers from engaging the mechanics required to apply the torsional forces to a ski with which to establish a balance platform under the outside foot.
In the scheme of things, an essential first step is to adapt the ski boots to functional needs of the skier as opposed to forcing the skier to adapt to the limitations imposed on them by the ski boots. Tightly fitting, supportive ski boots and most conventional constricting, cushioned, supportive footwear actually makes the feet weaker while compromising postural alignment and balance. There is an emerging global movement that is recognizing conventional footwear as THE problem behind compromised foot function while creating a ‘perceived need’ for cushioned soles and artificial support in the form of custom insoles and orthotics which, instead of solving functional issues in the feet, lower limbs and entire body, further weaken the biokinetic chain.
The links below are to 3 articles that speak to this subject.
ORTHOTICS OR NOT => OUR LIMITING FOOT BELIEFS ARE HURTING US – http://kristinmarvinfitness.com/orthotics-or-not-our-limiting-foot-beliefs-are-hurting-us/
YOU WERE BORN WITH PERFECT FEET – https://www.correcttoes.com/foot-help/feet-101/
STRENGTHENING VS. SUPPORTING: THE COMPETING LOGIC OF FOOT HEALTH – https://www.correcttoes.com/foot-help/strengthening-vs-supporting-competing-logic-foot-health/
There is currently a whole series of Foot-Cast Episodes on The Foot Collective site at – http://www.thefootcollective.com
see – THE HUMAN GUIDEBOOK FOR SWITCHING TO BAREFOOT FOOTWEAR
A good starting point is to acquire a sense of how day-to-day footwear compromises foot and lower limb function and the modifications or ‘hacks’ necessary to adapt the footwear to the functional needs of the user.
A recent post on the Correct Toes blog called ‘How to Modify Your Shoes to Better Fit Your Feet’ (1.), comments on a runner who was experiencing distracting numbness and tingling in her feet, but balked at allowing her coach to make a few cuts in the upper material of her shoes to relieve the tension that was causing her problem. Most people are uneasy with the idea of modifying footwear. They tend to readily accept standard, off the shelf shoe size fit and assume that the way a shoe fits (or doesn’t) fit their foot is the way it is supposed to fit.
I recently had a similar experience with a young ski racer whose toes were crunched up in her ski boots that were both too short and too narrow. The liners were especially bad. Like many of today’s young racers, early in her racing career, she had probably grown accustomed to the constraint imposed on her feet by her ski boots and had unconsciously learned to make her feet comfortable by standing with most of her weight on her heels. After a time, her body had come to accept this as ‘normal’. Once this happened, she became reluctant to make changes.
A ex-racer, who I worked with back in the 1970s, loaned the young racer a pair of her boots. The improvement in the racer’s skiing was immediate and remarkable. Her coach commented that she had made 6 months improvement in one day! Unfortunately, stories of skiers and racers whose foot function, balance and even the function of their entire body has been compromised by tightly fitting, supportive ski boots is common. But happy outcomes, such as this young racer experienced, are exceedingly rare.
The Correct Toes post offers some good suggestions on footwear modifications that are remarkably similar to those I have used for decades in both ski boot liners and in my own footwear. The reason the modifications are similar is that the end objective; creating a functional environment for the user by minimizing the negative impact of the footwear on foot function, is the same.
The series of photos that follow illustrate examples of modifications that can improve the functional fit of footwear. An easy modification is to reconfigure the lacing pattern. Just because a shoe has a specific set of lace eyelets does not mean they all are necessary. The 2 photos below are from the Correct Toes article.
One modification that the Correct Toes article does not mention is the use of lace locks. Lace locks allow lace tension to be regulated and maintained without the need to over tighten laces to prevent them from coming undone.
Correct Toes, The Foot Collective, EBFA, Feet Freex, EM Sports and many others are advancing on a uniform front in lock-step with the makers of minimal shoes in recognizing the damage caused to feet by conventional footwear while moving towards a uniform standard for the design and construction of footwear that creates a functional environment for the foot, while minimizing the negative impacts associated with structures placed on the human foot. Technologies such as NABOSO hold the promise of advancing on barefoot function in what I like to call ‘Beyond Barefoot’.
It has long been my experience that liners are the most problematic aspect of most ski boots. When I worked exclusively with Langes, I often made extensive modifications to liners that included using a liner a size larger than the shell size and re-sectioning and/or re-sewing the forefoot to allow proper alignment of the big toe and adequate width for the forefoot to fully splay.
The biggest problem in ski boot liners is in the toe box, especially the shape of the toe end in that it forces the big toe inwards, towards the center of the foot.
A modification that the Correct Toes article suggests is to make small slits on the side of the footwear opposite the point where the foot needs more room to splay.
Cutting small slits along the base of a ski boot liner is the first hack I usually try. But in many cases, I find more drastic modifactions are necessary in order to obtain the width required for the foot to fully splay and the big toe to align properly.
The photos below are before (L) and after (R) modifications that were necessary to accommodate my wife’s feet. These are older race stock Lange liners which I fit to her extensively modified Head boot shells.
For ‘shallow’ feet or feet with a low instep the Correct Toes article suggests adding tongue depressors along the top of the foot or under the laces to help fill the void and prevent the foot from lifting or sliding around.Photo with permission of Correct Toes
The photo is of forefoot/instep retention pad that applies a constraining load to the foot that is substantially perpendicular to the transverse plane of the boot board. This device is similar to the one that powered Steve Podborksi to the podium in World Cup Downhill races. Today, Steve remains the only non-European to have ever won the World Cup Downhill title.
I devoted a large portion of my US Patent 5,265,350 to laying the groundwork for a functional standard that could evolve and eventually be applied to all forms of footwear, but especially ski boots. There are encouraging signs that the ski industry has finally started to take baby steps in this direction. I will discuss this in my next post.