In this post, I am going to begin the first of what I expect to be a series of posts on the Two Step Process to Balance on the Outside Ski.
Before I start, I am going to caution the reader that they should not expect that the ability to learn and engage the processes responsible for balance on the outside ski to be easy to understand or quick to learn. Many obstacles stand in the way of the ability to balance on the outside ski. As Benno Nigg’s experiments in the early ’90s at the Human Performance Laboratory at the University of Calgary demonstrated, the human body is highly adaptable. If a person puts their feet in footwear that prevents natural barefoot function, the body will find a best case work around compromise.
This is what happens to skiers when they put their feet in ski boots. As the Polish study showed, over time, the body will adapt. But adaptation always comes at a price. Some skiers may adapt to constraints of a ski boot to the point where they are considered expert skiers by the prevailing standards. But they typically reach a point where they can no longer advance. Given same ability, the least compromised skiers become the best.
The problem faced by skiers who wish to learn balance on their outside ski (foot) is that the ingrained motor patterns their brain has created as a work around to address the limitations caused by their ski boots can be exceedingly difficult to erase. A skier will typically make some progress only to have their brain revert to motor patterns that have worked in the past when it senses danger. When this happens, the odds are great that even the most athletically gifted skier may have to relearn skiing to some extent. I have seen many graphic examples of this pattern over the past several years in skiers and racers I have worked with.
WARNING: The Mechanics of Balance on the Outside Ski is Not Simple
About the simplest way I can describe the mechanics is that the First Step involves a heel to 1st MPJ rocker loading mechanism while and the Second Step involves an intertia-driven turntable, over-centre mechanism. The mechanics is unified sequence of events. The reason I have broken it two steps is to make it easy to understand the critical nature of the first part of the sequence.
More than 25 years ago, I tried to make the First Step simple and easy to understand with the model I fabricated shown in the photo below and that graphic illustration that follows that shows how the Achilles tendon tensions the Plantar Aponeurosis (aka the Plantar Fascia) and enables foot to pelvic core sequencing. Note the annotation in graphic to Late Stance and (SR) Ski Stance Zone.
In my demonsrations, I would drop the model on a table from a height of a few inches. The rotation of the leg of the model would be quickly arrested by simulated isometric contraction of the Achiles. The model and the demonstration failed to garner attention or interest because the importance of the forefoot to foot function was not on the radar screen. Instead, the focus was on the hindfoot and addressing the known looseness of the forefoot associated with the mid stance phase of gait. A late stance phase was not yet part of the gait cycle narrative. The importance of late stance and fascial tensioning of the forefoot to foot function and foot to core sequencing has only recently been recognized.
The First Step is to tension the biokinetic chain that extends from the MPJs of the foot to the pelvis. The timing of this event, which is critical, will be discussed in a later post.
The key move is the loading of the outside foot. This should happen in the top of the turn as the fall line is approached. This is the point where a skier should become the tallest in relation to the snow. At the end of a turn (in the bottom) is where a skier should be lowest.